NEA Arts Magazine

The Artistic Climate

Andrea Polli Transforms Scientific Data into Art

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Woman in sunglasses putting together a piece of equipment.

Andrea Polli setting up a station for the Hello, Weather! project. Photo courtesy of Andrea Polli

Call them eco-artists, call them environmental artists, call them crusaders. As concern over climate change has grown, many artists have employed their work to explore the human toll on the natural world. Take Andrea Polli, an award-winning digital media art­ist based in Albuquerque who teaches art and ecol­ogy at the University of New Mexico (UNM). Polli calls attention to the way our climate is evolving by transforming scientific data into soundscapes, son­ifications, and participatory public artworks. For instance, imagine being aurally immersed in Ant­arctica’s sub-zero environment or observing what looks to be a hyperventilating, “suffocating” car. Her projects vary in form, often utilizing interac­tive websites, digital broadcasting, mobile applica­tions, and performances in order to reach as wide an audience as possible. “I wouldn’t say that I’m really explaining anything as much as I’m promot­ing a kind of emotional reaction,” she said.

In her work Particle Falls, Polli drew attention to particulate pollution, or the tiny, menacing particles in the air such as car exhaust, tobacco smoke, mold spores, pollen, and silica dust. Using a nephelometer, which monitors air particulates, Particle Falls proj­ects a cascading stream of current air quality data, enabling passersby to visualize the effect of their pres­ence on the atmosphere in bright orange bursts. Polli suggested, “If you can see that in real-time, you have a different kind of emotional reaction to it.” Through December 1, the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia will project Particle Falls onto the Wilma Theater as part of the foundation’s Sensing Change exhibition. It will be the second presenta­tion of Particle Falls since its development for the 2010 ZERO1 Biennial in San Jose, California. “I like to think of these projects as living things that are evolving,” she said. “I’ll show them more than once, and with each iteration it may change.”

Bright blue lights on the side of an office building.

Particle Falls is a large-scale projection that allows viewers to see current levels of fine particles in the air by cascading data down the façade of the AT&T building in San Jose, California. Photo courtesy of Andrea Polli

Polli’s earliest artistic interest within the world of science began with chaos theory, a mathemati­cal field studying the underlying orders and unpre­dictable behaviors of dynamical systems. “There was an article that came out in Scientific American about fractals and chaos and it gauged program­ming code,” she recalled. “I got curious about what that might sound like.” So during completion of a master’s degree in time arts at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Polli wrote a program to turn fractals into musical improvisations based on the Lorenz attractor, a set of chaotic solutions based on a mathematical formula first developed during stud­ies of atmospheric convection.

It wasn’t until several years later that Polli started exploring ecology. Attending an art-science conference in Los Angeles, she met her first scien­tist-collaborator, meteorologist Glenn Van Knowe of Troy, New York. “I told him about [my] work with the Lorenz attractor, and we talked about how that was the simplified model for air move­ment through the atmosphere and how much those models had progressed,” she said. “That’s when we started talking about doing the Atmospherics/Weather Works project.”

Using the latest technology in atmospheric mod­eling, their partnership resulted in a multi-chan­nel sonification of two historic storms that struck the Mid-Atlantic: the Presidents’ Day Snowstorm (1979) and Hurricane Bob (1991). Atmospherics/Weather Works debuted in 2003 as a 16-speaker sound installation at a firehouse-turned-gallery in Lower Manhattan’s Tribeca neighborhood. These cacophonous musical pieces interpreted “the more unpredictable complex rhythms and melodies of nature.” With sound, Polli provided a soundtrack of storm activity that mapped the sudden weather changes that occurred over a 24-hour period.

In some ways, there is also a sensational quali­ty to Polli’s art. One such example is Breather, a bubble-encased car suffocating on its own exhaust fumes, that draws attention to Delhi, India’s mount­ing health crisis due to air pollution. Similarly, the mist-cloaked Cloud Car makes visible the effect that automobiles have on air quality. “[Breather] and the Cloud Car piece are very much a spectacle,” she re­plied when asked how people have responded. “One thing I thought was effective about [both pieces] was that people would come up to the car and we would hand them a fact sheet that would say, ‘If you have to drive, here are some things you can do that will reduce your emissions.’” The point of these projects is ultimately to raise awareness and understanding of the issue. “If we just tried to hand people that infor­mation without having some kind of fun spectacle to perk their interest, they might reject it or feel insulted by it or just not want to look at it or read it.”

Smoking pouring out of a car behind a sign.

Polli’s Cloud Car at the New York Hall of Science in conjunction with the Ear to the Earth Festival in October 2008. Cloud Car was developed in residence at Eyebeam Art + Technology Center and supported by the New York Hall of Science, International Symposium for Electronic Art, Belfast, and Parco Arte Vivente (PAV), Torino. Photo courtesy of Andrea Polli

She hopes that an emotional response will prove powerful enough to prompt changes in human be­havior. “I think that art [and] digital media can help maintain people’s interest by creating all kinds of different ways to raise awareness and raise people’s energy and interest in doing things that are posi­tive,” she said. “I’ve talked to the meteorologists I’ve collaborated with, even as far back as 1999 to the 2000s, and they told me that they could not do their work without visualization. So it’s become es­sential to the scientific work as well… I think [data visualization] is going to become really integrated in people’s everyday lives.”

The creative process for Polli’s pieces is multifac­eted, and often includes collaborative, interdisciplin­ary teams as well as extensive fieldwork. “I’m very interested in the people, specifically the scientific re­searchers and the site—what they’re doing and what their knowledge is,” she said. For Sonic Antarctica, Polli flew to the remote continent of Antarctica and spent seven weeks at a residency with the Nation­al Science Foundation’s (NSF) Antarctic Artists and Writers Program. There she worked alongside sci­entists studying the global effects of climate change while conducting her own artistic inquiries. The re­sult was a performance piece and a sound and visual installation based on her research.

Screens of snow and tundra in Antarctica shown in a room.

Polli’s Sonic Antarctica installation at the 2009 transmediale festival in Berlin, Germany. Photo courtesy of Andrea Polli

When asked about her greatest environmental concern of the moment, she said, “Waste. I think it’s a really huge issue.” Polli added, “Right now, what I’m thinking about is how important it is to have a cycle of production that’s circular rather than a linear cycle so that we can be more effective at reusing our resources.” Polli will explore this issue over the next five years with the Social Media Workgroup, a lab that she directs at UNM’s Cen­ter for Advanced Research Computing. The Social Media Workgroup is comprised of faculty, under­graduate and graduate students in engineering and the arts, and industry professionals who work to­gether on “projects related to media technology, environment, and social change.”

The group’s latest project, which received an NSF grant, will explore new approaches to energy harvesting and raise awareness of global behav­iors to energy consumption. “My research team is working on the outreach and raising public awareness about this kind of work,” Polli said. The plan is to create a large LED grid for a high-rise in downtown Albuquerque visualizing the city’s energy consumption and energy potential.

With her dedication to this type of large-scale public work, Polli has managed to successfully break out of the studio and enter, well, the envi­ronment, making even the most stubborn people stop and think about our responsibilities as human beings on our shared planet.

Whitney Dail Yoerger is a writer and cultural worker living in Maryland. She reports on activities and projects at the intersection of art, science, and technology.